Category Archives: Industry E-Commerce

The Organic Coffee

Today many agricultural products are grown using organic methods and coffee is no exception. Organic products have a very minimal effect on the environment because there is no use of insecticides, pesticides and fertilizers. All organic produces are certified to ensure that their products are grown in such a way. Expensive and very technical labs must conduct very thorough tests on the gourmet coffee to ensure the product is organic. The tests will be used to screen for various chemicals and additives.

All organic coffee must be certified by the US department of agriculture and has a label on it but the FDA only reads the provided tests – they do not conduct the tests. It is certified organic: Coffee which is grown under the standards of the USDA Organic Certification program, without pesticides and under environmentally sustainable circumstances. It will bear the green and white USDA Organic seal.

To include the term organic on packaging, a manufacturer must create its product in accordance with USDA rules. The USDA’s National Organic Program certifies products as organic based on farming, handling, manufacturing, distribution and labeling practices. Requirements include: no antibiotics or growth hormones for animals, animals must be raised on organic feed and have free range to graze, crops must be raised with no synthetic pesticides or fertilizers containing synthetic chemicals, no sewage-sludge fertilizer, no bio-engineered foods or irradiation, and no GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Farming practices should enhance and preserve soil and water. A government inspector must certify the farm after visiting it; farmers must keep detailed records on crops. 100%ORGANIC All ingredients, not counting water and salt, are organic. Products with this rating can use the green and white USDA Organic seal (image at right).


At least 95% of the ingredients, measured by weight (excluding water and salt), must be organic. The remaining 5% can only be natural or synthetic ingredients that are not available organically, drawn from a preapproved USDA list. Products manufactured to this standard may use the “USDA Organic” seal on the label.

Organic coffee is a multimillion dollar industry and each year the sales of this coffee are increasing. Exports of organic coffee are up in most of Europe and North America. Organic coffee is usually grown in many countries- in Africa, Asia and South America. All over the world people have become organic coffee drinkers, but Americans consume the majority of it.

Just like normal coffee, organic coffee is also available as decaffeinated, caffeinated, flavored, coffee sodas, coffee ice cream, coffee candies etc. Unlike normal coffee which is decaffeinated using ethanol based solvents, organic coffee is decaffeinated using a process called Swiss Water.

All organic coffee products in the USA are certified for both quality and integrity. The organic coffee is produced in a very specific way and all operators are randomly inspected to ensure that they meet US Department of agriculture standards.

In the USA, organic coffee accounts for about 2-5% of the market. Compared to normal coffee, organic products tend to be slightly more expensive – 20 to 40 percent more. Which is typical of most organic products.

The Classification of the Manufacturing Process Types of the LED Light Industry

In most industries, there are some general approaches to manage the manufacturing processes. These general approaches are called process types. In the LED light industry, the process types are set to manage the operation of the volume-variety manufacturing activities.

To an LED light manufacturer, several process types are classified to show the methods of managing the manufacturing operations with different volume and variety features. Based on the increasing volume and decreasing variety, these process types are project processes, jobbing processes, batch processes, mass processes and continuous processes. These process types are widely applied in the LED tube industry. For example, the manufacturing activities of the LED bulb products are most likely managed by the mass processes.

1. Project processes.

The project processes are the managing activities to cope with the highly customized projects, such as some tailor-made products. For such customized projects, it takes a very long time to finish the spare part production and the individual service part, let alone the whole project. Therefore, in the project processes of the LED light manufacturer, the features are low volume and high variety. The activities involved in the projects can be interrupted or changed by the uncertainty and goal changed by the customers or the manufacturing processes. Examples of project processes include the LED lighting projects of the stadium and the tunnel. The key point of the project processes is that each activity has its own start time and finish time. There may be a long time interval between the jobs, as the resources need to allocate and organized for the following jobs.

2. Jobbing processes.

The jobbing processes are also designed to cope with very high variety and low volumes. In the project processes of the LED bulb manufacturer, each product has its own allocated resources, in some cases may be more or less exclusively to it. However, in the jobbing processes, each part or product needs to apply the operation’s resources with others. The manufacturing lines in the jobbing processes are making a series of products. These products may require the same resources and the same type of operation, but they may differ in the levels of usage. Examples of the jobbing processes can be the LED lighting system of a warehouse. Such a project will require different types of LED tube and LED bulb products to achieve the luminous purposes. These products will need to install LED chips, LED driver and LED housing. However, their needs of the same resources will be different in the assembly lines.

3. Batch processes.

In general practice, batch process and jobbing processes can be similar, but the batch processes have less variety compared with the jobbing processes. As the term batch indicates, the output of each process will make more than one piece of the product. In the manufacturing line, each single operation has its own repeatable part. The individual operation is repeating itself during the batch production. If the size of the batch is small, only two or three pieces, the batch processes will be nearly the same as the jobbing processes. This is normally in the case of a new product. However, if the batch size is large, and the products are frequently manufactured on the production lines, the batch processes can be repetitive. Therefore, the batch processes can support a wider range of volume and variety, compared with other processes. Take an LED bulb manufacturer for example. The manufacturing of the T12 LED tube light and T8 LED tube light can be batch processes, and the size will be large.

4. Mass processes.

The mass processes are designed to deal with products in high volume but low variety, in terms of the design or mechanism of the products. The LED tube light products can be an example. There are many types of tubes available, such as the T12 LED tube light and T8 LED tube light. However, the manufacturing lines are still mass processes because the different features or variants of the tubes do not affect the nature of the manufacturing activities. They are using the same processes, with only some different spare parts installed on the lines. The processes in the LED light production lines are most likely repetitive and predictable. For examples, the tubes are firstly assembled with the chips, then with the drivers, and finally with the housing. Of course, different tubes may use different types of LED chips, LED drivers and housing.

5. Continuous processes.

The continuous processes are the next stop of the mass processes, which work at higher volume and lower variety. These processes can be interpreted as the production activities with longer timescale. In some cases, the manufacturing lines work endlessly to make huge quantity of products. These products seem inseparable and are needed in an endless flow. In some extreme cases, the continuous processes are required to work continuously, as the operation needs to supply the goods without a break. These processes are normally designed to deal with relatively inflexible, capital-intensive technologies with highly predictable flow. So far, these processes are not applicable to the LED light industry, as the LED tube or LED bulb products are still not so popular in our everyday life. The continuous processes are more suitable for the steel making and electricity utilities.

Protecting Brands From Infringement and Knock Offs – Part II Advanced Techniques

1. Use Copyright Registration to Stop Knock-Offs

Too often, overseas and other low-cost manufacturers are employed to replicate successful products. This can be done by carefully making a mold of the product and then using that mold to make a replication. These knock-offs are imported into the U.S. and enter the stream of commerce through a variety of channels. A more sophisticated infringer will ensure that the product is marketed with a name that does not infringe the trademark. Most likely the name will be descriptive. Assuming that the product configuration/shape is not protectable as trade dress or by design patent and there is no trademark infringement of the product name, it is very difficult for the brand owner to police these knock offs. One strategy is to incorporate a registered copyright into the product. A registered trademark, particularly a logo, similarly can be incorporated. With either strategy, a copier is likely to copy “too closely” picking up the copyright or logo into the mold, thereby including it in the knock-off product. This provides grounds for copyright and trademark infringement claims, both of which support injunctive relief as well as impoundment/destruction of infringing articles (Sections 34, 36 of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. 1116, 1118; Sections 502-03 of the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C.). The copyright claim (Sections 412, 504, and 505 of the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C.) also allows for the recovery of attorney’s fees and statutory damages if the work is registered pre-infringement.

2. Protecting Consumables from the Gray Market

Parallel or gray market imports are products marketed by the rights owner, or with the rights owner’s permission, in one country and then subsequently imported into another country without the rights owner’s permission. Typically gray market goods are sold in the U.S. at a considerable discount, because the importer is able to purchase the products abroad at a lower price. Thus, brand owners are better able to control the prices of their goods when the gray market cannot serve as competition.

Rights owners can take proactive steps in educating the public as to gray market goods and deterring importation of such goods. Rights owners should implement product control and tracking procedures for their foreign manufacturers and distributors to prevent unauthorized “back door” transactions. If goods not authorized for sale in the U.S. continue to find their way into the U.S. marketplace, the rights owner should take necessary action, including terminating ties with the associated foreign manufacturer/distributor. Rights owners may also pursue an exclusion order under § 42 of the Lanham Act when they become aware of gray market goods. Further, monetary relief, including disgorgement of profits, is available under § 32 and § 43 of the Lanham Act.

Additionally, brand owners should take advantage of a potential strategy employing an important exception to the first-sale and exhaustion doctrines, which allow rights owners to enjoy more control over their foreign manufactured products than their domestically manufactured products. These doctrines, which limit a rights owner’s control and allow a purchaser to sell or otherwise dispose of a lawfully made copy, do not apply when goods are manufactured abroad. Essentially, a rights owner may seek to protect its consumables from gray market importation by incorporating its registered copyright into the product, without the first-sale and exhaustion doctrine hurdles. A product bearing a registered copyright cannot legally be imported into and resold in the U.S. without permission of the rights owner. Additionally, as stated above, the copyright infringement claim also allows for the recovery of attorney’s fees and statutory damages if the work is registered pre-infringement.

Finally, gray market goods can be sold domestically as well. This frequently occurs where a legitimately branded product priced for one market channel is sold by a third party into another market channel. This is often seen with OEM software, which is sold at a deep discount and bundled with a new computer. Third parties will sell that software as a stand-alone retail product, but at the deep discount. Gray market sales also occur with high-end products. These types of sales are controlled through contract and assertion of trademark or copyright rights.

3. Use Pre-Suit Depositions to Obtain Early Discovery

Texas law is unique in that it allows a litigant to file a petition to seek pre-lawsuit depositions. Under Texas Rule of Civil Procedure 202.1, a person may ask the court for an order authorizing the taking of a deposition for use in an anticipated suit or to investigate a potential claim or suit. This process can be extremely useful in acquiring information regarding the infringement, the parties involved in the infringement, the sales volume, and other useful information that is necessary in order to determine the amount of potential damages and the strategy for a case.

4. Stopping Infringement on eBay and Social Networking Sites

Although not required by the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA), eBay has employed a Verified Rights Owner Program (VeRO) that provides a procedure for handling not only copyright disputes, but also claims of trademark and patent infringement. Typically, the property rights owner first registers with eBay and upon knowledge of an infringing article being offered for sale on eBay, the rights owner fills out a Notice of Claimed Infringement (NOCI) form. The seller is given an opportunity to provide a sworn Counter-Notice in response. According to eBay policy, the rights owner will have 10 days to institute a legal action to restrain further sales. If the rights owner fails to take timely action, the listing may be reinstated.

While Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other social marketing sites provide innovative ways for brand owners to connect to new and existing clients and grow their business, as with any interface that operates on user-generated content, these sites can also be hot spots for infringement. It is important for rights owners to monitor these sites and take action to stop infringement. Sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter all have procedures in place to assist rights owners in handling infringement. It is critical that rights owners take full advantage of these safeguards in order to protect their brand. Similar to cybersquatting, third-party registration of a user name/handle is a common way brand owners trademarks are infringed on social networking sites.

5. Employing the New PRO-IP Law

To combat copyright and trademark counterfeiting, Congress recently passed the “Prioritizing Resources and Organization for Intellectual Property Act of 2008 (“PRO-IP”). This legislation includes significant enhancements in civil actions. For example, PRO-IP requires courts to award treble damages and attorneys fees where a violation results from the intentional use of a counterfeit trademark, or where one provides goods or services that intentionally assists others in counterfeiting. Also, the range of statutory damages for trafficking in goods bearing counterfeit trademarks was increased to $1,000 – $200,000 per mark. For willful violations, the statutory damage ceiling doubled to $2 million. Additionally, for both civil and criminal acts of counterfeiting, PRO-IP allows for the seizure and forfeiture of: (1) the counterfeit goods, (2) instrumentalities and tools used in the counterfeiting process (which would include, for example, a home computer used in infringing file sharing or copying), and (3) profits derived from the sale of counterfeit goods. The Act also contains a provision whereby, for the first time, U.S. criminal law will explicitly prohibit the transshipment or exportation of counterfeit goods or services, deeming it a violation of Section 42 of the Lanham Act.

6. Stop Infringement at the Border

Record trademark and copyright registrations as well as trade names with the U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (the “CBP”) and upload a Product Identification Guide, if applicable. Once recorded, the CBP will monitor the import of products for these trademarks, copyrights, and trade names. The Product Identification Guide allows field officers to more quickly identify and authenticate counterfeit goods. If discovered, the counterfeit products will be detained and the CBP will inform the rights owner of the attempted importation. If the rights owner does not agree to allow the counterfeit goods to be released, the goods may be seized, forfeited, and destroyed and the importer may be subject to substantial fines. Further, the CBP will provide the rights owner with detailed information about the parties involved in the importation so that the rights owner can pursue legal action against all involved in the counterfeit operation.

With respect to U.S. patents, patent owners can petition the International Trade Commission to initiate Section 337 exclusion proceedings against imported products that infringe on their patent rights.


The above 6 techniques provide an array of tools to protect brands from counterfeiting, knock offs, and trademark infringement. Best practices are to use of multiple techniques to safeguard brands. For more information regarding trademark protection, see our trademark infringement services page.

Cleanroom System in Pharmaceuticals

Cleanroom is a part of quality control that intends to enhance the quality of products by limiting the exposure of the products to unwanted particles in the air. Cleanroom in Pharmaceuticals refers to the measure of purity of the air in the room where pharmaceutical products are manufactured or packaged. In simple terms, a cleanroom gives an idea about the size and amount of particulate matters that are present in the air inside the room. In addition, it sets limits for concentration of particles in the room. The concentration of the particles is measured as the number of specific particles per cubic meter of the air. If the particulate concentration goes beyond the limit, the products manufactured in such facilities will not be approved for marketing by the Quality Assurance Department.

According to Federal Standard 209e, cleanroom in pharmaceuticals s are classified according to the amount of concentration of particles in the air. However, the concept of cleanroom does not provide any information about the physical, chemical or radiological characteristics of the particles. Therefore, cleanroom is essentially concerned with the amount of airborne particles. Remember cleanrooms are assigned for industries other than pharmaceuticals. Nonetheless, this classification holds special relevance to the pharmaceutical industries as the regulatory guidelines for manufacture of medications are more stringent than those for others.

A variety of classification systems are used to categorize cleanroom in pharmaceuticals. Each system has its own parameters, and assigns a different class to the room based on the concentration of airborne particles. Some of the common cleanroom standards are governed by:

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration)

Federal Standard 209

British Standard 5295

Pharmaceutical Cleanroom Classification

WHO- Good Manufacturing Practice

International Conference on Harmonization Regulations (ICH Q7A)

The documents in the cleanroom standards also have certain sections that guide the use of specific equipments to purify the air according to the industry requirements.

The parameter of cleanroom classification varies on the basis of the formulation of the medication being manufactured. For example, manufacturing facilities for aseptic or parenteral (injectable) products need to have cleaner air compared to those manufacturing topical formulations such as cream, lotion and ointment. Eyes drops or ointments, also called ophthalmic preparations, also need to be sterile just like the parenteral preparations. Hence one can expect similar limits for airborne particulate matters for manufacture of eye preparations. For manufacturing such products, the facilities should also comply with the standard limits for microbial contamination.

There is no doubt over the fact that public health is a very sensitive issue. Medications are used to treat, cure, prevent or diagnose diseases. Therefore they have an explicit effect on the health of the consumers. In essence, medications are more than just chemicals; they can be a poison too. The level of sensitivity increases proportionally when manufacturing injectable or ophthalmic preparations. This is the reason why all the pharmaceutical manufacturing or packaging facilities should strictly comply with the requirements set forth by the governing authority. Hence cleanroom for pharmaceutical is a must.

How to Choose the Best Steel Products?

Are you an owner of a sugar and rolling mill or do you work as an engineer in a manufacturing unit? From V belts to UC beams, every steel component has to be of proper quality for a smooth running production process. Let us check out the unique features that a steel product should possess.


Steel products used like the UC beams and the W section beams are used in civil engineering and construction. Therefore these devices often operate under aggressive working environments and have to deal with high pressure. These products hence must be manufactured with high quality material. Besides offering strength to the products, the structural steel also ensures a long life to the W section beams. This is necessary to reduce the cost of repair and maintenance of the beams, also need of frequent replacement of the goods gets reduced. All these advantages lead to a lower cost production process.


Every manufacturing industry, be it the petrochemical industries or the sugar mills have their unique requirements. A premium brand of engineering products manufacturers will provide you steel products as per your requirements. Their expert team of engineers can mould your necessities into advanced products. For example, the universal beams are available in wide variety of sizes. If you need any rare kind of product then also the company should be able to provide the same. These companies can also provide an exhaustive range of steel products which are standard to any industry and can be used in varied production processes.

Quality Tested

Steel products, like the v belts transmit power while the flanges transfer harsh chemicals through them and are exposed to high temperature. Hence, if you are using defective appliances, there is high chance of accidents and material loss. To prevent these, you must get products which are ISO certified. Top brands in the steel market have their products tried and tested as per ISO guidelines before they deliver the same to the clients. Hence go only for companies which are ISO accredited.

Reasonable Price

Now if you want sustainable business you have to curb down your expenses. V belts are considered to be the cheapest power transmission devices. Hence you can save a lot on your expenses by purchasing these devices instead of traditional belts. Get quotes from the market and then decide to go with which company to get the best deals.

On Time Delivery

Last but not the least; time is important. Get your v belts and universal beams from companies who can deliver the products on time. Another important aspect that you must keep in mind is that whether the company can meet up your bulk orders. Check out the scalability of a steel product manufacturing unit before placing your orders.

Steel products are the life of any industry and hence it is very important to get the best products available in the market.

Advantages of Private Label Products

Private label products or services are those manufactured or provided by one company for offer under another company’s brand. These are also known as store brands, private brands, or private goods. Private brands are available in a wide range of industries from food to cosmetics. In the past, these products were often considered to be lower cost alternatives to major brands, but many private brands are now showcased as premium brands and compete with existing name brands.

There are many advantages for retailers to promote private label products. The packaging and labels can be custom tailored to meet specifications, including product name, description, company’s logo and contact information. Private labeling allows more control over pricing strategies. There is also more freedom for retailers to create their own marketing plans and to control their own inventory in stock. With higher margins possible, there is a greater opportunity for profit. Private branding allows retailers to create a personalized and unique image, which promotes stronger customer loyalty.

Private labeling allows for greater control over many factors – including sales, marketing, and distribution. Retailers can have complete control over product distribution with private label products. The products are only available from the retailer – customers will not go into a popular megastore and find the private brand product at a lower price. Customers will not find the private brand product somewhere else on the internet either.

With private labeling, retailers can acquire products that are already developed, or that can be changed and re-branded in an individual fashion. Basically, retailers can control many business aspects, and create their own unique product. They can personalize the products, add their own information, additional materials, logos, titles, etc. This can all be done in a lot less time than it would take to develop the product from scratch.

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number of private label brands. This is particularly true in Europe, where private label goods account for almost half the products sold in supermarkets. This figure is closer to 25% in the United States, but the trend appears to be increasing.

Private brands come from several different sources. Numerous companies now offer contract manufacturing for private goods. Large national brand manufacturers often supply private label brands. Occasionally, competing brands are even made by the same large manufacturer. Ingredients, quality, and designs often differ quite a bit among these products, however.

Private brand goods are also acquired from small, quality manufacturers that specialize in particular product lines. Often, these companies concentrate on producing private label brands almost exclusively. There are also regional brand manufacturers that produce private label products for specific markets.

Private label brands are available in a wide range of industries from food to cosmetics. These brands help create a unique product and personalize a brand for retailers. Retailers with strong private label brands create exceptional sales opportunities for themselves. They can build value and recognition from the customers. Private brand products allow retailers to differentiate their products from competitors’ products, and provide consumers with an alternative to other brands.

All About HDPE Pipe Suppliers Services

HDPE pipes in India have numerous uses because of its versatility and flexibility. They are used in almost all consumer and industrial applications. Other features of these pipes worth noting are durability, anti-corrosive, malleability, recyclability, anti-mite, and anti-insects. Because, of these reasons, these pipe suppliers are in great demand in the current market.

Consumer and industrial applications

Reasons for HDPE pipes in India being suitable for a wide range of applications.

• It is resistant to insects, rots, and chemicals

• No leakage happens, whether in soil or water

• It is stronger as compared to stranger polyethylene

• It is effective against moisture

• It does not emit harmful substances

General applications

• Sewage system

• Water piping

• Sprinkler system

• Drip irrigation system

• Underground water piping

• Construction and building pipes

• Drainage piping system

• Water, gas, and other fluid transportation

Different ways in which HDPE pipe suppliers will help you

Buying HDPE pipes in India involves providing add-on services, quality check, and quality control by the pipe supplier. Below are some of the ways in which the supplier will assist you.

• Your supplier will line up your pipe with an existing liner pipeline. When you perform the extrusion, the heater is shut down due to excessive heat. The supplier, in this case, with the help of cooling fans lines up the old pipes with HDPE liner, maintaining the desired temperature.

• The suppliers take the requirements of the user to manufacture the polyethylene pipe liners according to their specifications. The pipes range in terms of diameter. Hence, you get personalized manufactured products.

• The pipe suppliers conduct fusion when new pipes are to be installed or existing pipes need to be changed. The fusion process makes sure that your pipes are not damaged due to weather conditions.

• It is the duty of the supplier to perform a proper inspection after and before the installation of the pipes. Timely maintenance and rehabilitation is also the work of suppliers of HDPE pipes in India.

Quality check and control provided by HDPE pipe suppliers

Proper quality check and control is one of the vital services provided by the HDPE pipe suppliers. Following are the services related to quality performed by the suppliers.

• The suppliers have to carry out the pipe quality check and assurance before deploying it to the consumer.

• The proper product inspection is to be carried out in the production area.

• The supplier should check the construction, appearance, and functions of the pipes properly.

• If you face any issues, you should supply all the information regarding the product to the supplier.

• You can also ask for in production photographs of the products as well as ask for samples.

• After the issue is sorted, ask for Corrective Action Report (CAR) to check for the long-term and short-term policies implemented by the supplier to solve the issue.

• Before accepting the order, one should ask for a practical inspection of the products from the supplier.

What is the Best Way to Cleanse Your Colon?

Nowadays, there are many different opinions on how you can cleanse your colon in an effective and non-risky manner. Many people believe that going all natural is the best way to go, but some also believe that seeing an experienced colon cleansing practitioner is the most effective way to clean the colon. However, the topic that is less argued upon is the fact that colon cleaning can promote a healthy way of life. Many people, nowadays, believe that colon cleansing is a great idea.

A number of individuals have regular cleaning for their liver and kidneys, but they tend to ignore the organ that is most in need of regular cleaning, the colon. Not many people know that the colon is the organ that has to be kept clean, since many of the diseases usually start in this area of the body. By doing extensive research, you will learn the different ways on how to cleanse your colon safely and effectively.

Cleansing your colon can be done in three basic ways. There is the natural way to cleanse your colon, there is also the use of colon cleaning products, or you can have it done professionally through colonic irrigation (also known as colon hydrotherapy or colonics). The natural method is the most popular among naturalists or people who prefer the products that Mother Nature has to offer. There are many things in nature that can aid you in keeping your colon clean.

The natural way to cleane your colon involves eating foods that are high in fiber. Fiber from whole grains, wheat cereals, fruits, and vegetables can help in the cleansing of one’s colon. Herbs that have cleansing effects can also help in cleaning your digestive tract, as well as water. The best thing about cleaning your colon naturally is that you know what you are taking in to your body. A privilege that you might not have when you are using manufactured products for keeping your colon clean.

Using colon cleanser products to clean your colon, on the other hand, is a good alternative if you do not have the time to do it naturally. Manufactured products really do work; however, sometimes they work just a bit too much. Some individuals find cleanser products a bit too harsh for their liking. This is because some of the products in the market are quite strong. But, there are products out there that are gentle and no less effective.

The professional method to cleanse your colon is known as colonics or colon hydrotherapy. This is where a professional practitioner will manually clean the colon with water, flushing away any debris or waste that is stuck in the colon. This method is quick and effective. However, you have to be certain that the person doing the procedure is well trained and experienced.

Whichever way you want to go to make your colon clean, one thing is for certain, colon cleansing is ideal as well as effective in keeping your body healthy and clean.

Wholesale Clothing Distributors

Wholesale clothing distributors purchase cloth, apparel, trimmings, home furnishing and accessories from manufacturers in large lots and resell them in smaller lots to retailers. Wholesale distributors usually work from warehouses or offices with no display of their merchandise. They interact with their customers through salespeople, over the phone and using the Internet.

Wholesale clothing distributors sell either imported goods or locally manufactured goods or both. The clothes may include readymade apparel or cloth material. The product range not only includes garments for men, women, boys, girls and infants, but also includes accessories such as scarves, hats and gloves as well as some home furnishings. The industry is tightly integrated and many distributors often manufacture the goods themselves or get it contract manufactured from low cost locations such as China. This is because of the seasonal nature of the industry. There are also wholesalers who act purely as a distributor from manufacturers to retailers. Their customers include retailers and online merchants

There are basically three categories of customers in the clothing industry. They are upper, middle and budget sectors with the budget sectors accounting for the largest chunk. Generally wholesale clothing distributors do not specialize in a particular product or products for a specific category of customers since specialization has not been a major trend in this industry. However, some wholesale distributors focus on sub segments such as women’s clothing, children’s clothing or accessories.

The traditional distinctions between clothing manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers are slowly becoming a thing of the past. Some large retailers are bypassing the wholesale distributors and are dealing with manufacturers directly. This is often accomplished by setting up a subsidiary company that handles the purchasing and wholesaling activities for the retailer. On the other hand, some large whole sale distributors are venturing into retail by setting up their own retail outlets. The industry is dynamic and distribution systems are seeing improvements. Internet-based wholesale clothing distribution is also growing rapidly.

Brazil’s Trade Results and Top Trading Partners in 2009

Brazil is one of the leading developing countries, one of the four emerging markets comprising the B-R-I-Cs (i.e., Brazil, Russia, Indian and China). Its economy has overall proved to be resilient during the global economic crisis. Nevertheless, Brazil did not escape the crisis unscathed. According to Brazil’s Ministry of Development, Industry & Commerce, Brazil’s exports decreased nearly 25% from 2008 (US$198 billion) to 2009 (US$153 billion), and its imports likewise decreased about 25% during that period from US$173 billion to US$127 billion.

In 2009, for the first time, China became the largest importer of Brazilian products, replacing the United States. Although exports decreased by about 20% from 2008 to 2009 due to the global economic crisis, exports to China increased by over 20% from during that period (comprising 10.2% of Brazil’s total exports). Meanwhile exports to the United States decreased by nearly 40%, comprising 10.2% of Brazil’s total exports. The remaining countries rounding up the top five export markets in 2009 were Argentina, Holland and Germany, comprising 8.4%, 5.3% and 4% of Brazil’s total exports, respectively.

Brazil has a very strong industrial base. It exports not only natural resources and agricultural products, but also industrial and commercial products. At the top of the list are natural resources (like iron ore)) and agricultural products (like soy beans, coffee and sugar). However, moving down the list, their manufactured products include vehicle parts, airplanes, petrochemical products and ethanol.

Meanwhile, in regards to imports, both the United States and China again are the top two countries that export to Brazil. The United States is the top country (comprising 15.7% of Brazil’s imports) and China came in second place in 2001 (comprising 12.5%). Both countries decreased exports to Brazil by 20% from 2008 to 2009. Rounding up the top five countries are Argentina, Germany and Japan, comprising 8.8 %, 7.7% and 4.2% of Brazil’s total imports, respectively. Imported products include passenger cars, medicines, vehicle parts, potassium chloride, engines and machines.