Category Archives: Manufactured Products

Software Products: As Goods for Sale Or a License?

A sale contract in a supplier’s order form involves a software program to be delivered or shipped in compact disc (CD-ROM) for a stated price, payable during the transaction, and with a perpetual subscription term to an end user.

Is the software program, arguably a licensing agreement, “goods” under the California Commercial Code? Is software sold or licensed? Section 2105(1) thereof defines “goods” as “all things (including specially manufactured goods) which are movable at the time of identification to the contract for sale other then money in which the price is to be paid, investment securities (Division 8) and things in action.”

In SoftMan Products Company, LLC v. Adobe Systems Inc., 171 F. Supp. 2d 1075 (C.D. Cal.2001) the Central California District Court noted that “a number of courts have held that the sale of software is the sale of a good within the meaning of Uniform Commercial Code.”

License Not Sale Of Software:

In Adobe System Inc. v. Stargate Software Inc., 216 S. Supp, 2d 105 (N.D Cal, 2002), the Northern California (San Jose) declined to adopt the Softman analysis of the Central California (Los Angeles) District Court, and reached a different conclusion.

It concluded that “based on the clear and unambiguous language of the relevant contracts (Off or On Campus Educational Reseller Agreement [“OCRA”] and End User License Agreement [“EULA,”] coupled with the multiple restrictions on title placed on the seller (Stargate Software Inc.) in the above agreements, the transaction should be characterized as a license, rather than a sale.”

Indeed, the preamble of the “EULA” states that “Adobe grants to you a non-exclusive license to use the Software and Documentation, provided that you agree to the following.” And paragraph 2 of the “EULA” states that “the software is owned by Adobe and its suppliers.”

The San Jose Court, in Stargate Software Inc. supra, adopted its own analysis in Adobe Systems, Inc. v. One Stop Micro, 84 F. Supp. 2d 1086, 1092 ( N.D. Cal 2000) to wit: ” due to the substantially similar nature and terms of the EULA in both cases,” which only granted the end user with “a license to use the software” and maintained “numerous restrictions on title with respect to the end user.”

A license is not a “good” that can be sold under the California Commercial Code.

Sale Not License Of Software:

In the Softman case, supra, the Central District of California Court in Los Angeles arrived at a different conclusion, although Adobe also argued therein that “the ‘EULA’ requires construction of the transaction as a license rather than a sale.”

The Los Angeles Court found that Softmanwas not bound by the “EULA” because there was no assent to its terms. The “EULA” agreement was not enclosed with the individual Adobe software disk, and consumers were asked to agree to its terms as part of the installation process. But Softman, a Los Angeles-based company that distributed computer software products primarily through its website, had not attempted to load the software that it sold.

Citing a number of courts, the Los Angeles Court referred to the characterization of Adobe’s “EULA” as “shrinkwrap” licenses that are invalid, unconscionable, and/or unacceptable contracts of adhesion that require express assent by the purchaser to be valid, under Uniform Commercial Code § 2-207.

But it declined to reach the question of the general validity of “shrinkwrap” licenses because Softman was not bound by the “EULA” since there was no assent to its terms.

It however concluded “that the circumstances surrounding the transaction strongly suggest that the transaction is in fact a sale rather than a license.” It further listed the “indicia” of a sale of goods rather a license, to wit: “The purchaser commonly obtains a single copy of the software, with documentation, for a single price, which the purchase pays at the time of the transaction, and which constitutes the entire payment for the ‘license,’ (and) the license runs for an indefinite term without provisions for a renewal.”

Restrictions On Title vs. Substance of Transaction:

SoftMan Products Company was a distributor of computer software products as well as Stargate Software Inc. Both were not end users governed by “EULA,” but rather resellers governed by “OCRA.”

One of the contentions of Adobe in Stargate, supra, was that it retained ownership of its software, the acompanying documentation, and all other related materials pursuant to the “OCRA.”

But Startgate argued that language in Adobe’s “OCRA” contained word such as “owned by reseller” and ” repurchase” by Adobe. Still, the San Jose Court in “Stargate, supra, concluded that “additional languages indicated that the ‘OCRA’ only confers a license.”

Thus, the San Jose Court in the Silicon Valley, in Stargate, supra, favored Adobe, a leading software development and publishing company, over Stargate, a discount software distributor, by focusing its analysis on restrictions on title that limit the reseller’s ability to distribute Adobe’s software.

On the other hand, the Los Angeles Court far from the Silicon Valley in “Softman supra, favored SoftMan, a Los Angeles-based computer software distribution company, over Adobe, by focusing its analysis on the substance of the transaction, the above-stated indicia of sale of goods.

Commentators like Prof. Raymond Nimmer, The Law of Computer Technology (1992), and David A. Rice, Licensing the Use of Computer Program Copies and the Copyright Act First Sale Doctrine, 30 Jurimetrics J. 157 (1990) have urged courts to look at the substance rather than the form of licensing agreements.

As Prof. Nimmer has written: “The pertinent issue is whether, as in a lease, the user may be required to return the copy to the vendor after the expiration of a particular period. If not, the transaction conveyed not only possession, but also transferred ownership of the copy.”

Conclusion:

A sale of goods or a license? The two conflicting analyses discussed above are irreconcilable, whether the buyer is a reseller or end user. For the buyers, software products are more advantageously characterized as “goods,” rater than as license.

Vice-versa for the software developer.

Territorial jurisdiction may to have influenced the above-stated courts in their analyses and decisions.

Determining Whether Nissan Wheel Spacers Are Good For Your Car or Not

Wheel spacers are a great item for your car. The advantages of wheel spacers are many. However, there are many car manufacturers who are not comfortable with the buyer using products manufactured outside their company. In fact, they have mentioned it clearly in their warranty card that if you use products not manufactured by them, all the facilities offered under the warranty clause will get null and void.

Is buying Nissan wheel spacers a good idea for your car?

The answer will vary from user to user. There may be some who are interested in using products manufactured by another car manufacturer. However, if we this aspect aside, we can shortlist the areas as to why buying Nissan wheel spacers is a good idea.

· Enhances the appearance: When you search option for Nissan wheel spacers you can be rest assured that the look and appearance of your car will get improved automatically. These spacers is an attractive to look at and give the car a new look and feel. It is a great way to change the existing, old and worn out spacers installed in your car.

· Cost effective: These spacers are not very expensive. As such you end up saving money which you would not have been able to do if you opted for other variety. Browse the market and you will get an idea that compared to the available varieties, the one offered by Nissan are quite affordable and easy on the pocket.

· Available in different sizes: These wheel spacers come in different sizes. Depending on your car model, make, size, weight and the tire type, you can opt for the spacers. You are sure to find the one that best fits your vehicle.

· High quality: The spacers offered by Nissan are made out of high quality alloy. They undergo different stages of quality tests before being launched in the market. As far as corrosion of the metal is concerned, you don’t have to worry about anything. Get it installed and forget about it.

· Ensures good control over the car: When you opt for wheel spacers, the first thing that you will notice is that you have a better control over your car. It gets easier to turn the car in different directions. However if you find that the weight is on the heavier side, then opt for a better lubricant and wider tires to minimize the weight experienced.

· Long lasting: The wheel spacers offered by Nissan are long lasting. They last for several years. This means that once installed you don’t have to worry about getting them replaced.

Option for authorized dealers

When you have decided to buy the wheel spacers from Nissan, it is a good idea to buy it from an authorized center. Visit the showroom of Nissan to check out their diverse collection of wheel spacers. Select the one that best fits your requirement and need. What are you waiting for? Go ahead and check out the collection today. Select the one that does justice to your vehicle type and budget.

Are You Using a Safe CBD Oil

CBD oil is becoming one of the hottest new products on the market today. In fact, annual sales of CBD oil products in 2018 was nearly 600 million and is estimated to be growing at a rate exceeding 107 percent annually. Prior to 2017, CBD products were available only in head shops, natural food stores, and at a few doctor’s offices. Since that time, the market has exploded and CBD products are now available in natural food stores, national food stores, beauty salons, nail salons, convenience stores, and even gas stations. But, are these CBD products manufactured from safe CBD oil?

First of all, let’s examine what we mean by safe CBD oil. Some reports indicate that as much as 40% of the CBD products on the market tested positive for heavy metals like lead and arsenic, concentrated chemical pesticides, bacteria, fungi, toxic mold, THC, and numerous other dangerous impurities. Most people would agree that products containing these impurities would be considered to be unsafe.

Most of these unsafe CBD oil products are grown and manufactured in China, Mexico, and numerous third world countries that do little or no oversight in the products they sell.

One of the most common and dangerous impurities commonly found in tainted CBD products is chemical pesticides. These chemicals are used to kill insects and other organisms that can be harmful to the plant. According to the Toxics Action Center, “Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of human health hazards, ranging from short-term impacts such as headaches and nausea to more serious health problems like cancer, reproductive damage, and endocrine disruption.” It could be very dangerous to ingest any type of tainted CBD product if it is contaminated with pesticides.

The best and safest products available on the market are those in which the hemp is grown in the United States and the oil is produced in a food-grade facility. And, of course, it must be tested by a reliable, third-party facility. If you’re looking for a safe CBD oil product with consistent high-quality and levels of CBD, look for suppliers located in the U.S. who use only U.S. grown hemp. In addition, look for suppliers that whose products are thoroughly tested for purity, quality, and cleanliness. And, as an added measure of safety and quality, many of these manufacturers are regulated by state agencies.

As an example of this type of state oversight, CBD manufacturers located in Colorado must register with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). Then,they must meet several requirement such as demonstrating that industrial hemp produced in that facility does not contain more than three-tenths of 1 percent of THC, the psychoactive compound in marijuana that causes one to get high.

When you purchase from suppliers located in Colorado or if your supplier uses other third party organizations that certify that you are buying safe products, you can be assured that CBD products like bath bombs, CBD drops, gummies, gel caps, relief creams, ointments, and more are safe to consume and use.

Terms of Trade in Africa and Reasons for High Volume of Trade Between Africa and the West

Development of substitutes, weather type, difficulty in diversifying the economy due to competition from foreign countries, reliance on primary production and vulnerability to world recession and price fluctuations are major economic problems associated with dependence of African countries.

Terms of trade in Africa, especially the west

Terms of trade in West African countries have been witnessing an unfavorable or worsening trend because the prices of their imports have been increasing relative to prices of exports. reasons for the worsening terms of trade include: most west African countries are producers and exporters of primary products eg, agricultural produce and crude minerals; they import lots of capital goods in an effort to industrialize thereby increasing imports more than exports; there has been a fall in the demand for certain primary products of West African countries. This is due to the development of substitutes by the developed nations. this leads to a decrease in the price of export and increase in the price of imports and then finally, the production of low quality of manufactured products is also a problem. This is due to low level of technological development. The importation of high quality manufactured products, therefore increases importation over exportation.

How to improve terms of trade

The terms of trade can be improved by any method which will increase the price of exports relative to imports. these methods are: use of inflationary policy, appreciation of the currency, imposition of higher export duties on commodities with an inelastic demand, a reduction in the demand for imports; through collective bargaining, developing countries could achieve higher prices for their exports; improvement on the quality of manufactured goods and there should be increased internal use of primary products in production.

Reasons for high volume of trade between West African countries and developed countries

The bulk of west African foreign trade is directed away from Africa to the developed countries due to:

1. Presence of processing industries: Industries that make use of the raw materials which are the main products of West African countries are found in Europe and America.

2. World Economic order favors developed countries: The world economic order tends to be in favor of the developed countries hence West African countries export the goods to them.

3. Absence of developed markets: There is absence of developed markets in Africa because its system of exchange is still underdeveloped and there is low demand as a result of low per capital income.

4. Over reliance on foreign products: Over reliance on foreign products has made West Africans to have notion that foreign products are superior.

5. Ineffective transport and communication system: Ineffective transport and communication system in Africa makes international trade difficult.

6. Low level of technology: Low level of technological development makes it difficult for African countries to produce goods needed in the continent, hence its going to Europe an America.

7. Production of mainly agricultural products: African countries produce mainly agricultural products and this makes exchange of goods between them very difficult.

8. Provision of capital goods are mainly from developed nations: Capital goods which west African countries depend heavily on are mainly produced in Europe and America.

9. Colonial ties: The inclination of some developing countries to their colonial masters has helped to increase the volume of trade between the nations.

So, it is now left for the government of the various African countries involved to tackle these issues because the remedy is a straight forward one. Reversing most of these problems will create a lasting solution.

The American Made Rolls Royce Auto – Not a Success Story

At one point in time the venerable prestige Rolls-Royce fine motor cars were made and manufactured in the U.S.A. – the United States of America. However this early example of marketing and production offshore and off home base was doomed to failure.

A bare six months after the signing of the historic contract between Charles Rolls and Henry Royce the export drive of Rolls-Royce was on its way. Early on in September 1906 Charles Royce was on his way to the United States, taking with him four cars as samples of the company’s wares. One of these cars was sold almost as soon as it was unloaded; one went straight away to Texas. The remaining two vehicles served as sales and marketing vehicles – an example of the fine craft and attention to detail that the company become world famous and known for. One of the cars was kept on the road as a demonstration model, while the other was put on display at the New York Auto Show. That first appearance at the auto show was a great success for Rolls Royce as well: an additional four orders were taken for new cars. As well an American distributor jumped to the plate.

Business grew for Rolls- Royce in America to the point that in the 12 month period before the beginning of the First World War, fully 100 vehicles were sold. By this time the owners and management of the firm had come to the conclusion of the great sales potential for Rolls-Royce motorcars in the United States. Judged on current trends and market sales information and experience, they came to the conclusion that the American market for their fine products was larger and richer than anything that they could expect to attain in their home market and current manufacturing domain – England. Import restrictions and tariffs would be the limiting factor for Rolls-Royce in terms of both added costs to the final price of the car to American consumers, who would have to absorb the import tariffs on their vehicles and the profitability of Rolls-Royce in America.

The die was cast. As promptly as possible American manufacturing facilities were set up. This was to be a full Rolls-Royce manufacturing facility in America. A factory itself was purchased in Springfield Massachusetts. Manufacturing was promptly commenced under the direct supervision of none other than Henry Royce himself. Production was done mainly by local workers, aided and supervised by a fleet of 50 tradesmen from the British Derby factory itself. These British workers actually physically immigrated to America permanently with their families as well.

Production at this Springfield plant commenced in 1921 with Rolls-Royce firmly stating that the product from this auto plant would be the equal of anything built at the home plant located at Derby England. The plan was that parts would be shipped and assembled in the US with custom made coachwork made by existing prestigious American firms. Interestingly enough over time the number of items made locally in the US, as opposed to Britain, began to actually increase, not decrease. However the consistency of the product, in terms of product line and actual product began to deviate from the strict British made product. Only the first 25 rolling chassis were actually identical to the Derby England factory items. As time went on there were more and more deviations from the strict British product. Some of this may be due to the personal preferences and procedures of the different local American coachbuilders. After each was a premium established firms with distinct products, styles and methods previously. Some was due to the requests from the American customers, their ability to individualize and personalize their American made car to their individual preferences and styles.

What did in the American Roll-Royce? For one thing cost. Substantial costs were incurred in converting the cars from right hand British drive to left hand American. As a result of the increased costs incurred, the selling price of these American made Rolls-Royces was not nearly as competitive to other automotive products available on the U.S. market for prestige automotive products. Next the primary U.S. coachmaker for Rolls-Royce, the Brewster Coachbuilding firm, fell into financial difficulties. Then along came the 1929 stock market crash. The American Rolls-Royce might of continued save for one major marketing blunder. The British parent firm introduced a dynamite model – the Phantom, The car was not made in the US nor even made available, by import of 100 cars, till a year later. The car had great reception with the prestige auto market in the USA. However by the time it was decided to manufacture this hit product to meet the American demand the actual Phantom model was replaced by an ultra high tech and sophisticated model – The Phantom II. With the retooling costs incurred the calculation was that each American Rolls-Royce Phantom II car unit produced and sold would cost the company an astounding 1 million to produce in comparison to the 1929 customer price threshold for luxury prestige automobiles of only $ 20,000.

The fate of Rolls-Royce American manufactured products was sealed. The firm honored the last 200 orders for their cars. By 1935 these orders were completed and delivered to their customers.

That was the ending of the Rolls-Royce experiment of producing an American made prestige car product.

The Basics of Industrial Supply

The core of industrial supply consists of a wide selection of manufactures, wholesalers, and distributors all doing work in combination to put the proper products within reach of a massive association of builders, maintenance crews, utility suppliers, and countless other companies who work attentively to keep our country running.

Industrial suppliers certainly are a specific breed of companies often doing business inside of the B2B space and supplying a wide range of industrial products. Just a couple of these product categories might include:

Abrasives

Adhesives

Electrical Supplies

Hand Tools

Hardware

Heavy Machinery

HVAC Products

Janitorial Supplies

Plumbing Equipment

Power Tools

Safety Supplies and Equipment

Welding Materials

And much more.

The entire process of industrial supply starts off with manufacturers who turn raw materials directly into items the products’ industrial end-users need to do everything from manufacture their own unique finished goods, to create things like utilities, consumer services, and many of other goods and services that customers demand.

Manufactures then ship these products to their industrial distributors who serve the important roll of merging thousands of various kinds of items and disbursing them to end-users all over the world. This allows manufactures to target their attention primarily on manufacturing, leaving the majority of the logistical procedures in the attentive hands of industrial distributors who are known for making these processes as efficient and cost-effective as possible.

Once these manufactured products leave the industrial supplier’s hands it is up to the end-users to use these materials in order to operate their own unique businesses, producing and circulating lots of the goods and services most of us use regularly.

The importance of the roll that the industrial distributor plays in this supply chain can’t be understated. Without the employment of industrial distributors the efficiency of the supply chain is going to be severed as industrial end-users would need to develop thousands of individual associations with manufacturers of each and every product variety, thus establishing a purchasing and logistical nightmare. If this were the scenario, manufacturers would also have to allocate a significant percentage of their resources to things such as complex logistics, collections, and marketing systems.

Industrial distributors increase the value of this supply chain by offering one single point of contact for end-users that happen to be procuring many different industrial products. They also help to significantly reduce the marketing, logistical, and payment complications faced by manufacturers who are required to have their products at the disposal of end-users.

So what does this all mean for you and me? The most essential takeaway would be the fact that industrial suppliers tend to be the key to bringing efficiency to the operation of industrial supply. Without industrial distributors the actual costs of the products consumers use on a regular basis would escalate dramatically as both manufacturers and industrial end-users (producers) alike would see increased costs of accomplishing business and would therefore have to increase the costs for the goods and services they provide.

So that’s the basic summary of how the supply of industrial offerings works from start to finish. With luck, this document has answered any of your questions regarding industrial supply and in doing so will help lead you to finding an industrial distributor that can help your business grow and succeed.

Kassem Mohamad Ajami – A Steel Magnate & Managing Director Of Two Steel Manufacturing Ventures

Kassem Mohamad Ajami is a veteran of steel industry with an experience of 20+ years, this steel magnate found the passion in dealing with steel structures & products manufacturing and was only 20 when realized that steel has a great margin & can be turned for use to sustain a profitable business.

It was his sheer belief & idea that led to the foundation of his big venture called Saba Steel Industrial Nigeria Ltd. and other venture named Metal Berg Manufacturing Limited to dedicatedly serve the West Africa & Nigerian market with globally approved & standardized steel products. Kassem Mohamad Ajami provides the service with the world-class process-based approach as he brings his 14 years’ experience into his work. His extreme leadership qualities made him a superior leader, leading a team of exceptional executive leaders like CFO, General Managers and all the other members of his team.

This steel magnate cum industrialist was keen to set up a structure where businesses or clients can find all the steel manufactured solutions & products under one hood. That too with extreme quality & certification drawn by third-party international quality assurance team.

Their aim is to distribute a wide range of products in terms of size, shape, dimensions, all customized as per the different industries or commercial setting’s needs.

The key behind managing both the ventures is – his vision to snuggle the global market with competitive & quality products.

What makes Kassem Mohamad Ajami so prolific in managing two ventures? His indulgence in innovation, engineering of products that are customized to implement and are circulated at rates that are easily accepted.

His aim is to target the global market by utilizing the rich resources & markets of all of Nigeria with steel product that not only just blends in any business process but works indirectly to help businesses reap further profits & long-term yields.

His approach being agile & adaptable has what led to the foundation of two big chains.

His premier enterprise Saba Steel Industrial Nigeria is dedicated to engineering steel structures to industrial sectors mainly – Aluminum smelters, heavy industries, cement plants, storage depots, truck bodies and more.

Another one, Metal Berg Manufacturing Limited is a member of Saba Steel Industrial Nigeria Limited and is focused on steel construction & fabrication. The company manufactures pre-engineered buildings (PEB) for warehouses & multi-storey structures and wide range of services including Fabrication & Erection of Steel Structures, Silos and Tanks, Manufacturing of Cylinders and Overhead Cranes, TMT Rebars, Ship scrapping.

The Reflective Supply Chain in Manufacturing

The well publicised plight of manufacturing companies in the United Kingdom has led to an ever increasing demand for reduction of internal costs and now, more than ever, the focus has been on the cost of supply chains. The nature of supply chains and their structure is however often overlooked, and many of the internal costs can be eliminated by examining the overall supply chain strategy. By developing a supply chain that reflects the needs of the internal customers, many of the previously unidentified inefficiencies can be eliminated and subsequent performance improved.

There are three categories of product that can be used to define the supply chain strategy for a typical manufacturing company. Firstly there are the core products that are manufactured on a continuous basis and form the bulk of production volume in any given period. Secondly there are products that are manufactured regularly to meet customer requirements or to satisfy a recurring demand, and finally there are those products that are manufactured to specific customer requirements on an irregular basis. The three categories are sometimes referred to as Runners, Repeaters and Strangers.

There is an unquestionable link between the classification of these product types and the supply chain organisation that is required to support them. Each classification requires a different supplier strategy and stock policy in order to maximise inventory turnover. For example, replenishment systems such as Kanban may be highly applicable to components used in the Runners group because of the rates of consumption but applied to the Strangers group may introduce higher volumes of inventory on long lead time parts. The selection of the appropriate supply chain strategies will therefore lead to two distinct systems, one for the Runners and one for the Strangers. The Runners supply chain will tend to be highly efficient with a focus on component cost, quality and the suppliers delivery performance. The Strangers supply chain however, will need to respond to the irregular customer orders and the focus will be more on supplier lead time and the ability to meet these hard to forecast demands. The Repeaters are likely to incorporate both systems and require case by case decisions on which approach to follow for each component. The Repeaters therefore typically lend themselves to strategic stock holding which requires regular review but gives a defined capability for production.

The classification of the products in this way identifies the needs of production and in turn identifies the type of supply chain support required to achieve the desired output volumes. More importantly, and often over-looked, strategies based on this simple analysis are more likely to support the customers requirements.

Having defined the groups of products and the styles of supply chains required to support the differing needs of these product groups, the supply chains themselves must be developed in accordance with these needs. The resulting supplier development programme can therefore be tailored to suit the different supply chain requirements and so support production needs and in turn the end customer in the most appropriate way.

There are many tools and techniques available for improving overall supply chain performance, but few have been developed to help define a supplier development strategy.

One technique called ‘Supplier Positioning’ maps customer perception of the risk and importance of its suppliers and also most importantly, the suppliers perception of the customer in terms of importance and ease of business. This can provide useful information by identifying which suppliers are not likely to support supply chain improvements. For example, many manufacturing companies will continue to purchase relatively low volumes of parts from large retailers, whose part cost, quality and delivery is beyond the customer’s control due to the supplier’s perception of the customer being ‘low value’. These suppliers therefore have a disproportionate ability to detrimentally affect the manufacturing capability of their smaller customers.

In improving the supply chain and creating the development strategy, ‘Supplier Positioning’ can be used to ensure that the integrity of supply will be maintained by giving an understanding of how the various suppliers view the customer and the degrees of interaction required to maintain good relationships. This technique has an additional benefit in that it identifies potential weaknesses or mismatches in the supply chain relationships which, once highlighted, can be resolved.

The application of product classification and then developing the supply chain to suit the production requirements can undoubtedly help identify the strategic direction for supply chain improvement. The resulting activities will not only develop a leaner supply chain but will introduce greater control of inventory and a better understanding of the needs of the internal customers.

There is an extricable link between the three main influences within any manufacturing company. Identification of customer demand, production capability and the flow of materials to satisfy this must combine with clearly defined parameters and processes to generate the required output. Failings in any one area will cause a domino effect that will result in failure to deliver on time in full and ultimately unhappy customers.

The rate of demand defines the requirements for capability and material flow but must never be isolated or ignored as is often the case. Changes in demand or customer orders can only be fulfilled efficiently by having a balanced circle.

Each function in this model is dependent on the others and must therefore work within the same boundaries to achieve a common goal. The key therefore to reducing the inefficiencies in a supply chain lies in understanding and managing these relationships which is the start point for achieving a reflective supply chain.

Healthy Eating Myth 1: Low-Fat Food Products Are Good for You

A few months ago I published an article about why certain manufactured food products keep you fat, and are not a suitable solution for healthy weight loss.

I focused on the problems associated with the low fat approach to weight loss, which have been revealed by Harvard School of Public Health. Remember, this highly regarded institution branded low fat food products to be more dangerous than consuming moderate amounts of saturated fat? And their call was that it’s time to end the “low-fat myth!”

As Harvard reported the main issue is that when fat is removed from foods as part of the manufacturing process, it has to be replaced. Invariably that something is sugar or other refined carbohydrates. The way in which the body processes high dietary intakes of sugars and carbohydrates eventually leads to body fat – of the type and distribution associated with serious illness including insulin resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular problems.

I also reported that an alarming number of profit-driven food manufacturers continue to produce an ever increasing range of these food products which they still assert to be the “healthy option”. Truly shocking! But their mission to flood the market with unhealthy, even dangerous, sugar-laden products continues, despite the well-publicised recent alarms about the health risks posed by sugar consumption.

The fact that, as I touched on in my previous article, the low-fat diet is a potential pathway to type 2 diabetes, makes it clear that it is the least appropriate weight-loss solution for those already diagnosed with the disease. Yet dieticians and other diabetics specialists working in the NHS in the UK advocate just that – read their diet facts sheets and see for yourself that manufactured low-fat food products are actually recommended! I have come across this in my own clinical practice several times in recent months for patients of both sexes, in newly diagnosed patients, in those who have been struggling to manage their blood sugars sometimes even for several years, and in cases of gestation diabetes. Even more shocking!

It is no wonder that some patients with Type 2 diabetes struggle to get their blood sugar levels to the magical “6” mark when the very products they being advised to take by supposed experts is so way off the mark!

For healthy weight loss – especially for those with diabetes it’s essential to ditch this damaging style of diet and boycott manufactured low-fat food products in preference for plentiful amounts of healthy fats!

By ensuring that a full complement of vital nutrients are consumed through an individualised tailor-made plan, the health problems associated with other diets are avoided.

Medical Device Contract Manufacturing

Contract manufactured medical devices are widely used in a variety of markets such as critical care, emergency room, home health care and industrial laboratories. The critical care section includes medical devices for respiratory therapy and operating rooms. The emergency room includes the medical devices for the cardiac lab, labor and delivery. Medical devices used in home health care such as a doctor?s office and medical laboratories can also be manufactured on contract basis. Contract manufactured medical products usually include simple tubing sets, very complicated bio-sensors, and even ultra-precision devices made from plastics, metals, electronics and ceramics.

Medical device contract manufacturing companies offer clean room and non-clean room assembly, testing and packaging services for class I, class II and class III medical devices. Class I medical devices do not cause any harm to the user and are very simple in design, compared to the other two devices. In class II devices there are special controls to ensure safety and effectiveness in addition to the general control. Class III devices require pre-market approval to ensure device safety and effectiveness.

Medical device contract manufacturers also provide sterile and non-sterile products. The assembly processes and capabilities of medical device contract manufacturing range from simple products such as tubing sets to ultra precision electro-mechanical devices. Most contract manufacturers deal with high volume disposable and low volume reusable device manufacturing. They also have a full service injection molding program such as injection mold design, fabrication and clean room injection molding. The cost of machines for the injection molding process is high. The design of the right mold is also difficult. Hence most customers go for contract manufacturers for the injection molding processes.

Some medical device contract manufacturers offer ethylene oxide and radiation sterilization coordination. A wide range of process capabilities, giving more care towards the quality, responsiveness and efficient operation are the main features of an ideal medical device contract manufacturer.

Medical device contract manufacturers usually work closely with the original equipment manufacturing companies. The contract manufacturing of medical devices includes traditional, high quality contract manufacturing services. It also introduces automation design and building capabilities.