Brazil’s Trade Results and Top Trading Partners in 2009

Brazil is one of the leading developing countries, one of the four emerging markets comprising the B-R-I-Cs (i.e., Brazil, Russia, Indian and China). Its economy has overall proved to be resilient during the global economic crisis. Nevertheless, Brazil did not escape the crisis unscathed. According to Brazil’s Ministry of Development, Industry & Commerce, Brazil’s exports decreased nearly 25% from 2008 (US$198 billion) to 2009 (US$153 billion), and its imports likewise decreased about 25% during that period from US$173 billion to US$127 billion.

In 2009, for the first time, China became the largest importer of Brazilian products, replacing the United States. Although exports decreased by about 20% from 2008 to 2009 due to the global economic crisis, exports to China increased by over 20% from during that period (comprising 10.2% of Brazil’s total exports). Meanwhile exports to the United States decreased by nearly 40%, comprising 10.2% of Brazil’s total exports. The remaining countries rounding up the top five export markets in 2009 were Argentina, Holland and Germany, comprising 8.4%, 5.3% and 4% of Brazil’s total exports, respectively.

Brazil has a very strong industrial base. It exports not only natural resources and agricultural products, but also industrial and commercial products. At the top of the list are natural resources (like iron ore)) and agricultural products (like soy beans, coffee and sugar). However, moving down the list, their manufactured products include vehicle parts, airplanes, petrochemical products and ethanol.

Meanwhile, in regards to imports, both the United States and China again are the top two countries that export to Brazil. The United States is the top country (comprising 15.7% of Brazil’s imports) and China came in second place in 2001 (comprising 12.5%). Both countries decreased exports to Brazil by 20% from 2008 to 2009. Rounding up the top five countries are Argentina, Germany and Japan, comprising 8.8 %, 7.7% and 4.2% of Brazil’s total imports, respectively. Imported products include passenger cars, medicines, vehicle parts, potassium chloride, engines and machines.

Force Strain Gauge Sensor on Load Cell

Talking about the industry, of course, will be closely related to sensors. Currently, there are many types of sensors used in the industrial world such as electronics, robotics, etc., various sensors such as motion sensors, light sensors, temperature sensors, to force sensors. One type of force sensor that is used widely is a strain gauge. A strain gauge is a tool or sensor that functions to measure the pressure or weight of an object. In the industrial world, strain gauges have several functions, such as measuring weight on digital scales, measuring the increase in cracks in building walls in the construction industry, measuring the tension in a series of bridges, and many more.

So what is a load cell? What does this have to do with a strain gauge? The load cell is a sensor consisting of a strain gauge or more, which is attached to a metal rod in the shape of a ring. The number of strain gauge in a load cell can be adjusted as needed. The strain gauge on the load cell is made of grid foil. Grid foil is a long, thin wire arranged in a zigzag manner. Load Cell consists of several types such as single point, shear beam, compressed, S model, to double-ended. Each type of load cell has its characteristics and advantages.

What is the function of the strain gauge on the load cell? Here’s the explanation. When the Load Cell on a gravity gauge is given a load, there will be a change in the resistance value of the strain gauge. The strain gauge acts as a conductor attached to the membrane surface. When there is membrane stretching, the resistance automatically increases. The strain gauge functions as a sensor to measure the weight of large objects or items. Generally, this strain gauge sensor is found on weighbridges or truck scales. Physically, the strain gauge is a thin metal foil grid attached to the Load Cell surface. Due to the load on the Load Cell, a strain occurs, and then it is transmitted to the foil grid. The resistance of the grid foils changes with a value proportional to the load induction strain.

So, the conclusion is that the strain gauge is part of the Load Cell. The load cell will not function properly if the strain gauge is damaged. Weight gauges are always on Load Cell like a digital scale. The performance of a digital scale depends on the quality of the load cell. It’s a big disadvantage when choosing a scale if we don’t look at the quality of the load cell. Make sure you choose industrial scales such as hanging scales or pallet scales which is equipped with the best Load Cell system so that it is more durable and not easily damaged. 

China Manufacturing Secrets

China’s focus is to become the manufacturer to the world. Their rate of expansion is 15% or higher over the last few years and is maxing out many of the resources of the country and world. Commodity prices for metal, concrete and other natural resources have skyrocketed. Chinese power plants can not produce enough electricity to keep up with the industrial production that is going on in their country.

What is their secret to such prolonged manufacturing growth? First and most important, the government in Beijing decided many years ago that if China was going to be a world power. They will need to manufacture goods. They saw it work in Japan and obviously, they knew it worked in the United States.

They knew they had a technologically advanced workforce. Factories had been manufacturing electronic components since the 70’s and early 80’s. Not only are the Chinese technologically advanced, they are a very hard working culture.

So to speed up up their progress, they put a plan in place to grow as fast as possible. In order to do that, they invited manufacturers from Taiwan to establish plants in mainland China. Many manufacturing operations in China started with relatively small sales and now produce $500 million to $ 1 billion in sales in less than 15 years. It’s incredible! The Chinese government has made their mission to be “The Manufacturer to the World”. It’s working. I wonder why the United States government does not place more value on our manufacturing expertise?

Second, the Chinese people work very hard, six days a week, 10-14 hours per day. There is a tremendous amount of incentive for them to work hard. For many, the quality of their lives and the lives of their family can increase many times over.

Third, the timing is perfect. Technological advancement in machine tools has made it easy for anyone to make products faster, cheaper, better. As more products are being made and being shipped worldwide, transportation costs are reduced. Products are being manufactured all over the globe, sometimes in the most unlikely places creating a “virtual unlimited supply”.

Manufacturing has become a core competency. Niches are being carved out in all corners of the globe.

China has uncovered the secret to creating a powerful economy and country. China has uncovered a big secret. But I don’t think the US Government will ever find out.

Bulk Alpha Lipoic Acid – Skin Care Talk and Many More

Nowadays, the use of bulk alpha lipoic acid (ALA) has been synonymous with skin care. Several types of skin care products containing the substance are being made readily available on the market. With the considerable publicity and media coverage of products with ALA, a rapidly increasing number of skin-conscious individuals are taking interest. However, it is rather unfortunate to note that not all that is publicized by the media is real and some people may learn this the hard way. As a safety precaution, it would be best to be knowledgeable with the basic product information beforehand. It is the most fitting way to determine whether its usage would be in line with your best interest.

The use of bulk alpha lipoic acid has not been limited in the field of skin care alone. Before its popularity as an effective additive in dermatological preparations, it was simply known as a naturally occurring element in the body and in some types of food. Several studies about the substance have concluded that there are numerous benefits in using the product. For one, the acid contains antioxidants which are beneficial for fighting against the obvious signs of aging. Its main task as a natural component of the body is to increase of energy levels within the cells of the body. Supplements that contain the substance have been known to be useful in treating individuals afflicted with arterial sclerosis, diabetes as well as a number of other diseases. Among its less significant but equally desirable effects is its capability being a good anti-inflammatory agent with toxin-flushing capacity.

Bulk alpha lipoic acid as a supplement has been proven beneficial with little to no side effects. However, its efficacy as a component in skin care products leaves some consumers somewhat disappointed. Although there are a few preliminary studies confirming its effectiveness in reducing wrinkles, only 50 percent of the test subjects responded positively. Nevertheless, the methods chosen to create those results are still under a cloud of doubt. For one, the amounts used on these tests were much higher than what is normally used in commercially manufactured products. At the same time, results can not be automatically considered reliable since there were not enough cases to be looked into. With such few studies on the application of ALA on the skin, there are speculations that initial results are biased and favor only those who are engaged in the manufacture of ALA skin care products themselves.

The accessibility of raw materials and online information makes it common for consumers to think of making their own skin care preparations that contain bulk alpha lipoic acid. It is to be noted that commercially available ALA-rich products are currently expensive and concocting a beauty cream at home may be the best bet. However, if you opt for a hassle-free skin care product, an over-the-counter merchandise can always be purchased without a sweat. Currently, studies on its effectiveness in the skin care area are continuously done to further reinforce the credibility of ALA-rich products. It is only through these years of researches and their relevant results that ALA in the skin care field will go unquestionable.

Aroma Toaster Ovens

Aroma Toaster Ovens are high quality, superior performance and affordable products from a reliable company. Over the years toaster ovens have become an essential part of every kitchen. These multifunctional appliances not only brown your toasts for you but are also capable of baking and broiling. Some ovens come with keep warm feature and rotisserie as well. Many leading brands of kitchen appliances manufacture these ovens; Aroma is one of them. Aroma has been in business for a long time and has manufactured products to simplify the lives of its consumers. Aroma products are ergonomic, performance oriented, user friendly, safe and reliable. Aroma products include rice cookers, coffee makers, blenders and countertop ovens etc.

The Aroma ABT-208S is a 4 slice toaster oven. Housed in a sleek compact brushed stainless steel body with a door handle, it makes an attractive addition to your kitchen. It comes with rotary dial knobs for temperature control and features a fifteen minute timer. This oven from Aroma not only toasts bread evenly but can also broil well. You can warm food, melt cheese and cook frozen pizzas in it. The accessories included with ABT-208S include a heavy duty broil pan and a chrome rack. The large glass window at the door lets you to check on the food.

The ABT-218SB is another remarkable product from Aroma; it is a combination of two appliances into one that is a toaster and a toaster oven. The unit has an attractive steel chrome body with black plastic finish. The appliance has a built in 2 slice toaster on its right side which lets you brown the toasts the way you like them as the toaster features the toast darkness control and stop button. The oven features a temperature control dial, a 15 minute timer, automatic shutoff feature, LED power indicator and a large glass window which gives you full view of the food. You can bake and broil in this oven. The oven has a nonstick interior which is easy to clean and a crumb tray where food residue collects. The crumb tray can be pulled out for cleaning. This oven cum toaster comes with a broil rack, a bake tray and a manual of instructions. A limited warranty from the manufacturer covers this appliance.

The ABT-419DN is another useful product from Aroma. This oven makes use of convection cooking techniques and is controlled by digital control panel. In convection cooking a hot air fan circulates hot air for uniform and consistent baking and cooking. This oven is large enough to accommodate a 12 inch pizza. It can perform three functions bake, fan bake and fan broil. The removable parts are dishwasher safe while the interior only needs to be wiped clean. The oven features an internal light while the well labeled push button controls make operating the unit easy. The appliance comes with a broiling rack, removable crumb trays, two bake trays, two bake racks, tray and rack handle and a 12 inch pizza pan. The manufacturer offers a one year limited warranty on this appliance.

Aroma Toaster Ovens are designed to make life easier in a cool stylish way.

The Basics of a Product Liability Claim

The field of product liability is broad and encompasses a wide range of claims. Nevertheless, a typical case involves a plaintiff pursuing a manufacturer, distributor, supplier, retailer, or other entity involved in making a product over injuries suffered.

Most product liability claims are handled at the state level, although laws regardless of location are similar. A lawyer taking on a claim, in nearly all cases, must not only prove the product is defective but additionally that this error caused the plaintiff’s injury.

The defendant, typically, claims its product has no error and that the plaintiff incorrectly used it. However, manufacturers are expected to foresee less typical uses for a product and make sure these uses will not result in an injury or death.

Product defects can occur at any time: around the time it was manufactured or after it has been on the market for several years. Because defects can be found in multiple products, a product liability claim may have multiple plaintiffs.

Although the field encompasses several types of cases, product liability claims can be broken down into three types:

Manufacturing Defects

As the name implies, manufacturing defects occur in the creation process and may pertain to poor-quality materials and construction. For these cases, the error occurred in making one specific product or item; as a result, the product purchased and causing the injury differs from all others on the shelf. A lawyer, for this claim, needs to prove the specific defect resulted in the injury.

Design Defects

Considered a more widespread problem, design defects make a product inherently dangerous or useless when manufactured to precision. As a result, a whole product line poses a danger to consumers. For these cases, as well, a lawyer must prove the defect resulted in injury.

Failure to Warn

Failure to warn cases pertain to products with less obvious dangers that could be lessened from a warning label or instructions. When a product does not come with directions for correct usage or with a list of special precautions, the product, which can include medications, poses a danger to the user.

The three types of product liability cases, however, are not exact legal claims. Instead, they fall within the scope of negligence, strict liability, breach of warranty or contract, and other consumer protection claims.

Lawyers will determine to take on a product liability claim based on its rate of success. For a successful claim, a plaintiff or plaintiffs may be awarded an amount for injury-related expenses, past and future medical costs, lost future earnings, and pain and suffering.

Accounting In Manufacturing And Trading Concerns

A motor car manufacturer, for instance, buys steel, rubber, aluminium, plastic, etc, that is used to manufacture motor vehicles that are sold to dealers (the trading concern). These dealers, in turn, sell vehicles to the customer.

From an accounting point of view the activities of manufacturing and trading enterprises are very similar, especially their administration, sales and financing activities. Therefore, the accounting principles and most of the procedures can be applied to both manufacturing and trading concerns. The main difference between the two is their method of cost accumulation and cost determination for (1) inventory valuation and (2) the calculation of the cost of goods sold. The difference arises from the fact that trading enterprises buy completed goods, while manufacturers make the goods sold by dealers.

The ‘accounting cost of goods manufactured’ item in the manufacturing enterprise therefore corresponds to the ‘accounting cost of good purchased’ item in the trading enterprise. In both cases these amounts represent the cost of finished goods available for sale. The trading enterprise, having purchased its goods in a ‘finished’ form, experiences little difficulty in determining their cost. The manufacturing enterprise, on the other hand, has to account for the cost of converting the raw materials into finished goods (also know as manufacturing costs).

In converting the raw materials into finished products, the manufacturer makes use of labour, machinery and equipment and also incurs other manufacturing costs such as power consumption, maintenance of machinery, etc. All these costs must be added to the cost of the raw materials to determine the cost of manufactured goods for any period.

Therefore, the accounting records of a manufacturing enterprise must be extended to make provision for recording the various additional costs peculiar to manufacturers.

The three most important elements of manufacturing costs are material, labour and manufacturing overheads. In accounting costing terminology, material and labour costs together are known as primary costs, while the accounting term conversion costs represents the combination of labour and general manufacturing costs.

By virtue of the nature of a manufacturing enterprise’s activities, it will require more accounting ledger accounts than a trading enterprise. The ledger must provide for aspects such as machinery and equipment, inventory, raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, etc. It is necessary to devote special attention to the various inventory accounts.

At any given time, a manufacturer will have different types of inventory on hand: material inventory ready for use in the manufacturing process; partially completed products still in the process of being manufactured; and finished goods that must be dispatched to dealers. Inventory accounting records and different accounting inventory accounts must be kept in order to determine the costs of each type of inventory at the end of a financial period. All three inventory accounts are asset accounts and are usually kept according to a perpetual accounting inventory system. At the same time they are control accounts supported by the appropriate subsidiary records

Where Does Meladerm Cream Come From & What Are Its Benefits?

The skin care market is filled with all sorts of products some of which are not safe for use. For first time users of Meladerm cream, some may feel unsure whether it is a good choice or not. Determining all this boils down to the components that are used to make the product. After research, experts found out that skin lighteners derived from natural extracts are a much safer option than those made from synthetic chemicals.

Unhealthy skin lighteners such as those made from hydroquinone can pose serious health risks to individuals and that is why some countries have decided to ban them. Meladerm cream, however, is an exception. It is made of natural derivatives of mulberry and bearberry, which for centuries have been used in traditionally in treating skin disorders. Other active components in this product include glycolic acid and niacinamide, which are actually good skin moisturizers. Buying Meladerm skin lightener is, therefore, healthy for you.

The solution will take good care of your skin and deliver great results within a few days of application. It takes at least about a month for actual results to begin to show, a clear sign that this is a product worth trying. The solution is available only through the internet.

What you benefit from using Meladerm cream

There are so many Skin Lightening products in the market today promising excellent results only to end up disappointing. If you have been a victim of these products, worry no more because you’re yet to try Meladerm cream. This is a skin lightening cream designed for all skin types and manufactured using natural ingredients only. Some of these ingredients include extracts from Mulberry and Blueberry plants as well as Licorice. The cream reduces dark spots and hyper pigmentation giving you an even complexion.

Improve the overall appearance of your skin using Meladerm cream because it is manufactured using state-of-the-art technologies and the latest research techniques. Skin experts behind its manufacture carry out extensive research on every ingredient used in its production to make sure the product is safe. Usage of the cream within a period of two weeks gives pleasing results while a continued used over a long period restores the skin completely. It is the right choice for a perfect skin tone and texture.


Meladerm is a miracle product. The fact that it is more than just a Skin Lightening Cream makes it one of the most powerful solutions the skincare market has today.

Meladerm was manufactured to solve the frustration most people go through because of counterfeit products.

Why buy Meladerm online

It is obvious that a number one worry when it comes to choosing a Skin Lightening Cream is the one to buy. Most people are looking for what is safe and substituting it for what they have been made to believe work yet do not. If you are like most people, then you will want to try Meladerm Cream.

Meladerm is increasingly becoming the most popular skin lightening cream. This is because other chemical products claimed to be safe have proved dangerous, as most of them are associated with cancer. While many local stores have ventured into selling this product, many people prefer buying online for various reasons that may be right for you as well.

To begin with, fake products are finding their way into the market and so if you are not sure whether your local stores get theirs from the original manufacturer, it is much safer to get your cream from recommended online websites. Secondly, some online stores offer discounts on Meladerm depending on the amount you spend.

How Can CNC Machining Speed Up Product Turnaround?

CNC machining offers a great way to speed up product turnaround of a range of manufactured goods for a number of reasons. These include the opportunity for 24 hours a day productivity, the ability to eliminate the need for a pre-production prototype, quick machine set up, and offering machine operators a chance to multitask and run several machines at once.

Firstly, the latest computer numerical controlled machines are much more efficient, with a much higher up time than traditional manual operated lathes and milling machines. This is because CNC machining is run by computer control, and only need an operator to monitor their progress rather than constant attention that their manual counterparts require. This makes it possible for almost 24 hours a day, 7 days a week operation, meaning more products can be manufactured in less time. Computer numerical controlled machines only ever need to be turned off for maintenance, offering 99% up time, so product turnaround can not only be increased, it can also be sustained for days, weeks or even months on end.

The other key benefit of this method of computer controlled manufacturing is seen at the very start of a production run of products. Unlike manually run machines, no model or prototype of the product is needed. This is because the designer can simulate production on a CAD drawing of a product. When they are happy that the product is ready for production, the electronic drawing can be emailed over to a factory equipped with CNC machining tools. The product can then be put into production immediately, meaning if an order is received in the morning, the first batch can be sent out for delivery that evening.

Another key reason why CNC machining can speed up product turnaround is the speed at which a product can be taken from the designer’s computer to the factory floor. Because a computer numerical controlled machine does not require hand drawn blueprints or designs, the CAD design can be sent to the machine electronically. This means that production can begin much quicker than with a manual machine, where a design would first need to be printed out and then the relevant information inputted by hand into the machine in order to produce the component or product. As a result, it is now possible to get a product in production within a few minutes of the factory having the CAD design emailed over, as long as a machine on the shop floor is available to be assigned the job.

The final reason why CNC machining equipment can speed up product turnaround is the fact that one operator can manage several of these machines at once. Because all of the actual manufacturing is controlled by a computer system, the operator merely needs to make sure the machine continues to run and keep it supplied with materials. This is perfect for firms who require large batches of products completed in a short amount of time, as it is possible to have more than one CNC machining system working on an individual component or product at once, multiplying the rate of production.

Luxury Eco Friendly Hotel Products and Amenities

In the era where pollution has become very serious problem and has raised its head in almost all sectors. Hotel industry is no exception, specialized eco hotels are mushrooming, and existing ones are resorting to environment friendly products and this means reducing the level of pollution in the environment. Therefore the guest amenities and toiletries are being packed and manufactured with such materials that blend well with the environment and are free of chemicals.

First thing that can be worked upon is the packaging of guest amenities with materials or specially manufactured plastic that can be recycled or is biodegradable. There are many companies that offer such type of packaging without comment on the look and quality of the packaging. One gets to choose from many options without compromising on the luxury factor.

From towels to toiletries all products can be manufactured using eco friendly materials, such things do not pollute the environment, water, air or ground with chemicals. They are basically produced using non-renewable resources that can blend well with the environment. Soaps, shampoos, conditioners, furniture, shower gel, slippers, bath robes, body lotion, toothpaste and much more can be made eco friendly. Some hotels offer their guests an entire range of complimentary eco friendly products. Such products and things are good for our body as well as the surroundings.

‘Going Green’ is the latest corporate mantra, which is liked by the masses especially who travel frequently and have to stay in hotels more wish to have such products that are harmless yet have good quality and satisfaction. These hotels get the accessories packed into eco friendly packaging which may include sewing kits, shaving kits, sanitary bags, nail care kits, vanity kits, combs, dental kits, shower caps, shoe shine sponge, etc.

Hotels do not go on packing and producing toiletries themselves, they give contract to companies who undertake such services. It is important to select a company who is known for its quality products and services. You can find such manufacturing companies online and surf through the range of eco products they offer, you can also ask them to get your products customized.

Some hotels that have turned into eco hotels even provide guests with certain suggestions and tips on how to save the environment. Hotel owners can bring down the cost of such products by purchasing them or ordering them in bulk.

This concept is becoming very popular, thanks to the marketing of eco tourism that focuses on merging with the environment yet enjoying luxury staying and travelling. Eco friendly guest amenity manufacturers can provide various information on their websites, therefore if you are considering a company which is not geographically nearby, use their website for further enquiries and contract prices.